Color induction via non-opponent lateral interactions in the human retina.
Retinal connections causing colors in Benham's top (pattern induced flicker colors, PIFCs) are investigated by psychophysical experiments. PIFCs are still seen when stimuli to different cones are demodulated selectively, indicating the involvement of non-opponent channels. PIFCs also occur on retinal areas next to those affected by modulated stimuli; further, both monochromat and dark-adapted trichromats perceive PIFCs which are achromatic. These additional findings point to horizontal cells as neuronal mediators of modulated excitation leading to PIFCs. The unspecifity of the postulated connection with respect to cone types agrees with anatomic findings of Boycott, B. B., Hopkins, J. M. and Sperling, H. G. (1987, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B, 229, 345-379) on horizontal cells.